Ezulwini
"Places of Paradise"

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WARDENS REPORT

OLIFANTS WEST

January 2010

 

INTRODUCTION

This report covers the time period from 1st October 2009 until 31st December 2009. During this time, we have invested over 1 120 man hours in vegetation and animal population dynamics surveys. These are discussed herein.

The amount of work completed is directly proportionate to the availability of resources. Funds and manpower are solicited from international volunteers for this purpose.

The data captured in these reports is designed to advise management as well as demonstrate the effectiveness of management action.

The information contained in this report has been obtained through both casual observation as well as basic monitoring techniques. Although the monitoring techniques are not discussed in this report, they are available on request.

In most cases, sample sizes are acceptable and the majority of OWGR is represented in the samples.

 

Contributors to this report:

Robbie Prehn – OWGR Committee & Pondoro Lodge

John Slabbert – Transfrontier Africa: Research Assistant

Sean Hill – Student: Game Ranch Management

Craig Spencer – OWGR

Volunteer assistance from:

  1. Conservation Volunteers Australia
  2. AVIVA Conservation Projects
  3. Transfrontier Africa

 

Veld condition:

  1. Grass:    A basic survey to evaluate the grass biomass at the end of the 2009 winter was conducted in October 2009. The purpose of this survey was to:
  2.  Gather base-line data with which to compare the end of winter grazing with consecutive years and show trends in response to grazing pressure and rainfall.

  3. To evaluate the accumulation of moribund and therefore the potential fire-hazard.

 

This entailed selecting 31 separate monitoring sites (figure 1) that would represent the reserve in two basic ways: 

    1. Water availability: Those areas that have well spaced water provided on a permanent basis, areas that have wind pumped water only and the Cambridge 5 & 6 area that has a multitude of permanent water.
    2. Rainfall and soils: Covering enough of the reserve to alleviate the potential bias of erratic rain-fall and edaphically variable areas (different soils).

Figure 1. Spacial representation of the grass survey plots in relation to water-points.

Results and interpretation:

§  In areas where water holes are restricted to those pumped by wind, such as Impalabos East and West, there was a markedly higher grass biomass at the end of winter. Collectively these areas contributed 52.8% of the above-ground grass biomass within OWGR.

§  Cambridge 5 & 6 and surrounding areas contribute approximately 6.68% of the end of winter above-ground grass biomass within the OWGR. Although the soils are of a high quality, this low yield is attributed to the plethora of water-points which allows grazers to concentrate in the area throughout the year.

§  Interestingly the areas such as Pondoro and surrounds that have permanent water, but well spaced, contributes 33.21%  of the above-ground grass biomass at the end of winter.

§  The majority of above-ground biomass of grass was attributed to the species Bothriochloae radicans and Aristida congesta at this time of the year. These are both increaser 2 species and have a very low forage value.

§  Bothriochloae radicans is a sub-climax grass that forms tufts and is often found in clay soils and at the base of termite mounds. Aristida congest, however, is a pioneer grass and does not form tufts. It is one of our more common grasses in OWGR.

§  Almost all grass biomass remaining at the end of winter was found in refugia under fallen trees and at the base of termite mounds (especially true for B. radicans).

§  The lack of grass biomass within 2 kilometers or the river is to be expected. It is perhaps a bit distressing that the winter grazing yield at the end of the 2009 season was comparable with that along the Olifants River (historically the only permanent water).

§  Areas that pump artificial water by means of wind-pumps displayed a high grass biomass which is attributed to a lower grazing pressure during wind-free (and therefore water free) winter months.

§  It can also be said that areas such as Pondoro which has well distributed water holes also enjoys a higher grass biomass.

§  Soil conditions play a major role in the capacity of an area to support grass biomass.

Figure 2. Chart representing the percentage biomass in relation to the water point categories.

 

It must be born in mind that historical land-use practice will also contribute to results. IE. If the area was subjected to intensive grazing or a fire regime, etc.

 

Figure 3. A representation of the percentage biomass in relation to the areas within the OWGR study area.

Results and interpretation:

§  In areas where water holes are restricted to those pumped by wind, such as Impalabos East and West, there was a markedly higher grass biomass at the end of winter. Collectively these areas contributed 52.8% of the above-ground grass biomass within OWGR.

§  Cambridge 5 & 6 and surrounding areas contribute approximately 6.68% of the end of winter above-ground grass biomass within the OWGR. Although the soils are of a high quality, this low yield is attributed to the plethora of water-points which allows grazers to concentrate in the area throughout the year.

§  Interestingly the areas such as Pondoro and surrounds that have permanent water, but well spaced, contributes 33.21%  of the above-ground grass biomass at the end of winter.

§  The majority of above-ground biomass of grass was attributed to the species Bothriochloae radicans and Aristida congesta at this time of the year. These are both increaser 2 species and have a very low forage value.

§  Bothriochloae radicans is a sub-climax grass that forms tufts and is often found in clay soils and at the base of termite mounds. Aristida congest, however, is a pioneer grass and does not form tufts. It is one of our more common grasses in OWGR.

§  Almost all grass biomass remaining at the end of winter was found in refugia under fallen trees and at the base of termite mounds (especially true for B. radicans).

§  The lack of grass biomass within 2 kilometers or the river is to be expected. It is perhaps a bit distressing that the winter grazing yield at the end of the 2009 season was comparable with that along the Olifants River (historically the only permanent water).

§  Areas that pump artificial water by means of wind-pumps displayed a high grass biomass which is attributed to a lower grazing pressure during wind-free (and therefore water free) winter months.

§  It can also be said that areas such as Pondoro which has well distributed water holes also enjoys a higher grass biomass.

§  Soil conditions play a major role in the capacity of an area to support grass biomass.

 

Figure 2. Chart representing the percentage biomass in relation to the water point categories.

It must be born in mind that historical land-use practice will also contribute to results. IE. If the area was subjected to intensive grazing or a fire regime, etc.

 

Figure 3. A representation of the percentage biomass in relation to the areas within the OWGR study area.

 

Figure 4. Graph showing the distribution of grass biomass within the study area.

It should also be born in mind that the area received an above average rainfall for the season and therefore these figures could represent a best case scenario.

Table 1. Biomass per hectare in relation to area and water sources.

area

kg / ha

 

water source

kg/ha

% biomass

River Lodge

54

Olifants river

54

6.68%

Impalabos East

236.2857

wind pumps (limited access to permanent)

426.6857

52.80%

Impalabos West

190.4

Cambridge 5 + 6

59

multiple permanent

59

7.30%

Rome 4 - 6

268.4

limited permanent

268.4

33.21%

 

  • As mentioned in the previous report, many of our grasses appear to be shade-loving and achieved a visibly higher biomass under bushes and shrubs or fallen trees. Cleared areas and exposed areas show the lowest above-ground grass biomass. This is attributed to both the reduced grazing pressure as animals struggle to access grasses growing in refuge under fallen trees, etc., as well as the micro habitat that is created (shade and lower evaporation rates / better water retention). It is therefore recommended that further bush clearing by land-owners be discouraged until further trials can be conducted to determine a best practice model.

In conclusion, it must be reiterated that in a semi-arid savanna such as ours, a healthy fire would require as much 2 500 kg per hectare of moribund.  was observed and there is insufficient fuel to support a “healthy” burn. It can therefore be established that we are well below the threshold for successful burns as an ecological management tool in the OWGR. This will be monitored over the years.

For the purposes of managing fires within our region, a flow-chart has been designed to assist with this in the field. This is attached as Appendix 1.

  1. Woody species:  The Visibility Index at the end of winter 2009 was calculated in September and October and had increased dramatically as expected.

In the absence of foliage on the woody species, visibility improved from 19.48 metres from the road verges, up to 31.55 metres.

Table 2. Comparing Visibility Index between the best and worst case scenario. Measured in metres.

 

summer

winter

minimum

11.82

25.3

maximum

22.79

35.39

average

19.48

31.55

 

This was measured at the peak of the growth period (March) and again in this reporting period just before the rains.

    • Methodologies were briefly discussed in the previous report.

A snap-shot of the influence of elephants on our woody species has been compiled and is attached as Appendix 2.

 

Water Points

A map showing the significant water points and their recharge methods is almost complete. The Oxford and Cambridge 5 & 6 areas are still under-represented and will be visited during the following reporting period.

Water quantity and quality surveys are still conducted on a monthly basis and showed that all dams and pans were full. Several, including the Singwe Big Dam were over-flowing following our good November rains and water quality was good for all water-points.

Figure 5. Spacial representation and recharge methods for water-holes captured to date.

Subterranean water

The area that has the potential to impact the sub-terrainian water the most is the Cambridge 5 & 6 section of the Reserve. I base this on the multitude of bore-holes within close proximity of each other.

Of the sites that we continually monitor, the Singwe Bush-camp main site (under the windmill) and the control site is no longer accessible as a result of recent up-grading of these sites.

Despite the good early rains, it would appear that the subterranean water is under pressure and this will only increase as development of the Cambridge 5 & 6 holdings continues.

The results are as follows:

Figure 6. Bore holes measured on the reserve compared with a 12 month average. Singwe Main has been removed as the bore-hole has been capped.

All sites show a below average value and this should be cause for caution. This is true for sites that are not abstracted and this would indicate that there is a correlation with the recharge rates and rain-fall to date and therefore it cannot be assumed that the below average values are related to over-abstraction. The Billy’s Lodge bore-hole that has dropped approximately three metres, displayed the same pattern in February 2009. By March it had recovered and perhaps this is related to the occupancy of the properties during the summer season? Although my data is little more than a snap-shot of two years, it would appear that this trend is typical for this time of year.


Predator / Prey relationships

The ongoing data-capture exercise that has been initiated in conjunction with Pondoro Lodge to capture data relating to as any kills within the reserve, continues.

§  Hyena activity has been observed in the areas adjacent to Ukhozi and on Impalabos. Furthermore, calls and sightings continue to increase in the area and Ezulwini Paradise Camp has been visited on several occasions by a group of three spotted hyena who appear comfortable with human activity.

§  Leopard sightings continue to improved and the frequency of sightings have escalated as the leopards become habituated to human activity. Sightings are still frequent on Pondoro and surrounds as well as Cambridge 6 and Singwe South.

§  Several black-backed jackals that were suffering from Sarcoptic mange have recovered. However, it would appear that several pups were lost in late December to this parasite. Our Jackal populations appears stable.

§  Sightings of civets and other smaller predators are frequent. Caracal remain elusive with infrequent sightings and serval continue to be absent.

§  Sightings of the same adult female cheetah and two sub-adults have been recorded frequently again during this period and we were graced with the arrival of a collared female cheetah which has been seen frequently

§  Lion pride dynamics are as per the previous report and all lions have been accounted for during this reporting period.

Table 3. Predator acceptance frequencies in OWGR over the reporting period.

 

Predator

Prey species

N (sample size)

% frequency

Lion

buffalo

12

16%

warthog

8

10.66%

kudu

11

14.66%

giraffe

18

24%

wildebeest

8

9.33%

waterbuck

3

4.10%

bushbuck

1

1.33%

zebra

9

12%

impala

5

6.66%

Leopard

impala

6

60%

guineafowl

1

10%

grey duiker

1

10%

bushbuck

1

10%

wildebeest

1

10%

Cheetah

impala

3

75%

steenbok

1

25%

Lion continue to favor buffalo as their chosen prey species and although wildebeest make up a humble 9.33% of their kill rate, this amounted to 88% of the wildebeest population according to the aerial census. This is a shocking figure if the census results are a true reflection of the animal numbers. However, our wildebeest herds that we have under management number a total of 31 animals and this is just a small snap-shot. Irrespective, the acceptance frequency may be low for wildebeest, but the following table will in demonstrate the importance of seeing this in context with the population size.

Table 4. Percentage of each species population that was taken by predators in this reporting period. Based on 2009 aerial census.

Prey species

N (sample size)

OWGR 2009 census figures

% of population

buffalo

12

25

48%

warthog

8

26

30.76%

kudu

11

98

11.22%

giraffe

18

50

36%

wildebeest

8

19

88.88%

waterbuck

3

74

4%

bushbuck

2

3

75%

zebra

9

78

11.53%

impala

13

680

1.91%

guineafowl

1

                                  N/A

                           N/A

steenbok

1

1

100%

This table is a poor representation of species which demonstrate a stochastic distribution pattern and should be seen as an indicator only. IE. If it was to be believed, then predators caused the extinction of steenbuck in OWGR! One more bite and the wildebeest will follow suite! This is not what we are trying to demonstrate, but rather work towards a Catch-Per-Unit-Effort concept for prey selection. This is one method of measuring this.

·         Note the value that the impala has as a prey species for other large predators. Both leopards and cheetah favour this species possibly due to the Catch Per Unit Effort model.

§  Again, much of the lion activity was concentrated on the Singwe and Cambridge 2, 3, 5, 6 & 7 areas during this reporting period, with visits to Rome 1 to 9 and Impalabos. Despite the York Pride spending a lot of its time in the Western Sector, they still frequent the other sectors of the reserve and territorial patrols by the two-male-coalition are observed from time to time.

Table 5. Age and sex class frequencies per prey species (this reporting period).

PREY DYNAMICS

PREY SPECIES

MALE

FEMALE

 

Lions

ADULT

SUB_ADULT

JUV

INFANT

ADULT

SUB-ADULT

JUV

INFANT

UNKNOWN

Buffalo

13.30%

8.30%

 

 

25%

 

 

 

50%

Warthog

 

 

 

 

14.00%

 

 

14%

71.00%

Kudu

22.00%

 

 

 

22.00%

11%

 

 

44.00%

Giraffe

7.00%

 

 

7.00%

28%

 

 

 

58.30%

Wilderbeest

28%

 

 

 

14%

 

 

 

57%

Bushbuck

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100%

Impala

 

 

 

 

66%

 

 

 

 

Waterbuck

33%

 

 

 

66%

 

 

 

 

Leopard

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Impala

33%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

66%

guenifowl

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

bushbuck

100%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

wildebeest

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100%

grey duiker

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100%

Impala

66%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

33%

Cheetah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

impala

25%

 

 

 

 25%

 

 

 

50%

steenbok

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100%

Alien Vegetation:

Opuntia ficus-indica (Prickly Pears) are still being tackled systematically in the area and are logged using a GPS. A database of their location is kept and plants treated with MSMA are re-visited to ensure that they have been effectively treated. Land owners on Ezulwini, Impalabos East and West have been pro-active in the eradication of these weeds. The areas of Rome 1 to 4 have not been surveyed as yet.

 

Figure 7. Prickly Pears treated or identified for treatment during this reporting period.

 

FOCAL SPECIES – INDICATORS AND KEY-STONE SPECIES

1. AFRICAN ELEPHANTS:

1. Elephant movements, impacts on vegetation and population dynamics:

Mega-herbivores are our major landscape architects in the region and are critical to the ecological processes of the savannah biome. Elephants have a controversial impact on the vegetation within the savannah biome and this is monitored along with their movement patterns and herd dynamics. This is a major focus of this project and we have partnered with the Save the Elephant Foundation and the Trans-boundary Elephant Research organisation for this purpose.

§  During this reporting period, 17 elephant sightings were recorded between October and December, with a noticeable absence of elephants for the past 24 days. The profile of elephants frequenting the area remains as young bulls with the odd breeding herd making an appearance. All sightings and documented according to the prescribed data-capture regime of the Save the Elephant Foundation. This includes several breeding herds and bulls. This data is handed on a regular basis to Drs. Henley. Much data was lost due to the lightening strike that destroyed our computer equipment.

Table 6. An example of the field – data – capture forms utilised for the elephant sightings.

 

Date

6-Dec-09

Time

1700

Location

Pondoro (S 24.18436 / E 030.94137)

Social structure

Bulls

Number in group

4

Individual Elephant info

Elephant ID 1

Elephant ID 2

Sex (bull/cow)

Bull

Bull

Size (small/medium/large)

Large

Medium

*Musth/Nonmusth

BM

0

Tameness index (1/2/3/4)

3

2

Age estimate

> 35

28

Sequence of animals

 

 

Code

LE

RE

Ft

Tk

LE

RE

Ft

Tk

Photo number

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Number of photos taken

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.2 Elephant influence on woody species:

The influence that elephants have on the woody species within the reserve is an important issue to understand. As a result, we have designed a monitoring protocol to assess this on a fine scale.

§  This monitoring regime comprises three transects that represent the vegetation communities of the reserve as well as the influence that roads have in the movements of elephants.

§  Plots are established in these transects and woody species are examined for damage caused by elephants.

§  Elephant related damage is quantified and the tree/shrub’s response is also noted.

§  An acceptance frequency of target species (Gadd, M. 1997) is employed to determine the preferred target species of trees or shrubs.

Table 7. Example of field data capture sheet employed to assess the fine-scale impacts of elephants on the woody vegetation.

 

TREES VS ELPHANTS

Date

18-Nov-08

 

 

Transect start

Height of tree

Plant data

Spp.

1.5m-2.5m

2.5m-4.5m

>4.5

Multi stem

Single stem

Damage

minor

average

major

Bark strip

Limb broken

Up-rooted

Dead

Coppicing

Healed

Pathogens / Rot

Browsing signs

GPS - S24.09.360 E 30.56.917

Raintree

x

 

 

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raintree

 

x

 

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

x

x

 

 

Weeping Wattle

 

 

x

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

x

x

 

 

x

 

Raintree

 

x

 

 

x

x

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Knobthorne

 

 

x

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

x

x

x

 

 

x

 

Knobthorne

 

 

x

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

GPS - S24.09.407 E030.56.924

Bushwillow

 

x

 

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

x

x

 

 

x

 

Knobthorne

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raintree

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shepphard's tree

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Russet Willow

 

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Magic Guarri

 

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corkwood

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

Corkwood

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

Table 8: The varying forms of damage to three different height classes of trees with percentage of damage caused.

Size

Total trees

Uprooted

%

BS

%

LB

%

Browse

%

<1.5m

201

13

15.40%

0

0.00%

58

34.60%

10

20.10%

1.5-4.5m

185

2

9.25%

0

0.00%

65

28.40%

13

14.20%

>4.5m

115

2

5.75%

7

16.4%

66

74.20%

12

9.50%

 

 

Figure 8. New damage (caused by elephants) to trees vs old damage.

§  Due to the fact that the SAVANNA Project is in its infancy, much base-line data-capture is required for the first few years

, before we can start to draw comparisons.

Figure 9. Vegetation community structure represented as percentage occurrence of target species.

Our research has shown that the elephant herds, and more specifically the bulls, seem to favor using roads to access areas of the reserve. As a result of the concentration on these roads, more trees are damaged in the areas directly adjacent to the roads. The problem with this is that the general public, managers and rangers travel the roads and have therefore developed an opinion of the elephants and their impact on the trees based on casual observations whilst they traverse the internal roads.

Figure 10. A snap-shot from our data-set indicating the significant increase in the damage to trees caused by elephants along road verges.

 

2. WHITE AND BLACK RHINOCEROS

Rhino are a high value species and white rhino, being bulk grazers, are a good indicator of grass biomass and habitat. There has been a new surge in the illegal hunting of rhino on the sub-continent and as a result, we have begun to compile a profile of each rhino that establishes itself in the area.

For this purpose, Photographic Identification has been initiated as well as the GPS location of all dung-middens that could indicate a new territory. Distribution maps are considered sensitive and will be distributed on request.

Figure 11. An example of white rhino sightings observed in the eastern sector. This information is considered sensitive and details are available on request.

Name:

Craig Spencer

Lodge/property:

Impalabos East. Xikankanka Dam

Date

2/12/2009

Time

1.50pm

Location

Olifants West Region. Balule Nature Reserve. S24,23128 E30,95689

Social structure

lone

Number in group

single

Individual Rhino info

Rhino ID 1

 

Left angle - horns

Right angle - horns

front - horns

total animal

Sex (bull/cow)

Bull

 

 

 

 

Size (small/medium/large)

Large

Tameness index (1/2/3/4)

3

Age estimate

Adult

Name / ID No.

Roger

Notes:

Pinkpatches on upper lip 

 

 

 

 

Figure 12. Example of a photo-identikit for our rhinos.

 

This work is on-going and it is essential that all rhino are captured on our data-base as a type of assets register.

The radio-telemetry is used on a daily basis to locate the black rhino in the area. We have not seen any tracks or picked up a signal since late in November. Last seen in Rome 8, 8 and Ukhozi. There have been unsubstantiated reports that a black rhino was seen in the Rome 2 area, which would indicate that our trackers are not being honest with us, and the radio telemetry is not functional. For security reasons, this must be ve

1.     BLUE WILDEBEEST:

 

Blue wildebeest are also one of our indicator species which are indicative of a “healthy” tree / grass ratio within the savannah biome. The blue wildebeest population in Balule has been on a downward spiral for several years and it is essential that we monitor this trend and advise accordingly

 

Figure 14. The sudden drop in blue wildebeest numbers. The trends are being monitored

against predator pressure as well as vegetation dynamics (habitat structure).

 

For this to be effective, we have begun to monitor recruitment rates and mortalities in each age and sex group, as well as herd dynamics and habitat preferences.

Figure 15. GIS model showing the locations of blue wildebeest herds in relation

 to water availability and our vegetation survey sites.

 

As mentioned earlier in this report, we have identified three herds and three transient bulls as our focal individuals of this species. This total 31 animals and is considered a representative sample.

 

Incident reports:

§  The fence alarm is triggered from time to time and Wynand is quick to respond at all times. No security threats have been reported to date.

§  The first big rains washed several big holes under the fence and these were speedily repaired.

§  Animal mortalities: We are aware of three sub-adult male impala and one adult female waterbuck that died on Cambridge 1, Campfire and Rome 9 respectively. The cause of death was unknown and further investigation not possible on all but one case as scavengers had devoured the carcass. The female waterbuck appeared to have died of a cytotoxic bite to the right back leg as there were signs of necrosis. Interestingly a leopard was observed the same night feeding on the carcass.

Anti Poaching:

 

§  Since my last report, OWGR has appointed an expert tracker on a permanent basis. Derrick resides at the compound at the main access gate and routinely patrols the boundary fence every morning. Following his routine fence patrol, he then patrols hot-spots that we have jointly predetermined.
To date, Derrick has removed several small snares which all seem old, from the drainages on Cambridge 2, 3 and 5 & 6.

 

§  A large cable-snare was removed from Cambridge 3 after it was spotted by the tracker and ranger from Naledi Lodge. A special thanks to Team Naledi for their continued assistance and vigilance. This snare was intended for large game and was large and strong enough for buffalo, giraffe and perhaps rhino.

 

§  Naledi Lodges also kindly supplied much of the uniform items for Derrick and continues to provide logistical support when required.

 

Interesting sightings:

 

§  The group of three ground hornbills are still seen on a frequent basis on Rome 9.

§  Impala and wildebeest calved well this year and their progress is being monitored to determine recruitment rates.

 

Cambridge 2 & 3 roads:

 

The Cambridge 2 and 3 road network has been completed on schedule and traversing by several lodges has begun. This has already born fruit as the “eye’s and ears” of the rangers from the various lodges have reported the snare mentioned earlier and lion activity has been recorded, thereby increasing our data-base of predator / pray statistics.

 

Other On-Going data-capture and monitoring initiatives:

 

Last years 3rd year conservation student passed well and has been promoted to Research Technician. A further 3rd year student from Tswane University of Technology, Sean Hill, has been employed to assist with the veld condition scores for this year.

 

CONCLUSION:

 

All the data summarized in this report is available for scrutiny and methodologies not discussed here are available for further scrutiny. These are just snap-shots taken from a larger data-set and should be seen as such.

Text Box: John C. Slabbert
Transfrontier Africa
Research Technician
Ezulwini Paradise Camp

 

Text Box: Craig R. Spencer
For Olifants West
Balule Nature Reserve
APNR
 

 

In order to stream-line our management decision making processes and ensure consistency in this regard, I have proposed the following flow-charts as discussion documents in this regard:

 

 

This report compiled by:

 

 

 

 

 

Please call Lauren on Cellphone number: +27 83 9637676

E-Mail Ezulwini: reservations@ezulwini.com Fax: 086 684 9221

Website last revised on 21 February 2012

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